Living in today’s world has become tedious as water, air, and land are polluted. Consuming safe drinking water is amongst the essential things to maintain a healthy life.

There are several water purifiers available currently in the market, such as RO/Reverse Osmosis, Ultrafiltration, and Ultraviolet water purifier is one of them. RO/Reverse Osmosis is regarded as the most reliable and effective water purifier that has the efficiency of water purification even with higher TDS levels.

Concept of RO water purifier

Impurities filtered have to be eliminated before the reuse of filter media, in a normal process of filtration. This needs maintenance often. Cross filtration is a concept used by RO which offers 2 outlets. The pure flow of water is through one outlet, and the other outlet eliminates the contaminated or impure or rejects water.

Components of RO

  • Inlet valve
  • Pre-activated Carbon filters
  • Sediment filter
  • RO Membrane

How does it work?

The Inlet valve fits the tap or any other water source. This tube is linked to the water filter that filters sediments.

UV and UF filters assist in eliminating microorganisms and bacteria to eliminate the leftover contaminant traces.

The subsequent phase of water filtration comprises the passage of filtered water via an activated carbon filter that eliminates any unpleasant odor that is left after the process of filtering.

RO phase of filtration can eliminate several essential minerals from the tap water. Therefore, the last phases of water purification include the utilization of mineralizers to elevate the water’s mineral amount.

The water filtered this goes through a storage tank where it is stored for human consumption.

A shut off valve that is automatic makes sure to cease the water flow into the tank. The system cut off. When water is consumed, the tank’s internal pressure decreases, thereby resulting in machine activation again.

Another outlet water releases reject water. A check valve is presented that avoids the storage tank’s backward stream of water.

To avoid water wastage, flow restrictors are present to sustain the inlet-side pressure of the membrane.


  • RO eliminates bacteria and viruses, along with their dead bodies.
  • Eliminates heavy metals such as dissolved salts, lead, and Arsenic from the water, making water safe for drinking.
  • TDS mineralizer or controller saves the water’s natural minerals.
  • Easy operation and compact.
  • Reject water obtained through the RO filtration process has PH Value- 93-95 percent impurities.
  • RO filtered water is slightly acidic, pH <7.


  • Need high water pressure and water wastage as reject water.
  • For 2 liters water input, there is the only 1-litre output of pure water.
  • They are electrically operated.
  • Impurities with molecular weight over 200 cannot be eliminated with RO, and also ions of high valency cannot pass through.
  • However, sodium, which is a monovalent ion, passes through, and gases such as carbon dioxide also go through.

RO is effective in treating water with TDS of high levels. Molecules, bacteria, ions, viruses, pathogens, and 99 percent of TDS are eradicated with an RO water purifier. It is recommended not to recycle the rejected water as the purifier machine can get impacted for efficiency, particularly when the contaminants in the rejected water are high. Instead, utilize the rejected water for cleaning floors or toilets or so on.

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